Seeing this opportunity, African Americans left the South in huge numbers. Emigration from the South gained more traction with the advent of several important developments, chiefly economic, beginning in the second decade of the 20th century.
In total, over three and a half million people migrated from to Among those who participated in this cultural moment in northern Manhattan, which raised black consciousness nationally, were poet Langston Hughes, writer Zora Neale Hurston, and scholar and intellectual W.
The historian James N. Aroundwhen the Great Migration began, a factory wage in the urban North was typically three times more than what blacks could expect to make working the land in the rural South.
Nearly half of the migrants who left Mississippi went to Chicago. Research by Brookings Institution demographer William Frey shows that, sincemore African Americans have moved to the South than any other region.
Many cities and states had unusually strong migratory relationships. Like so many before them, the men and women who were part of the Great Migration felt compelled to migrate to escape persecution and to search out economic opportunity. Jamelle Bouie writes in the Nation about riots against the few prosperous African American communities that developed: These migrants worked in foundries, in meatpacking companies, as servants of the wealthy and on projects such as the expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
After Reconstruction, the issue of African migration was rekindled; however, many leading blacks, among them John Langston, opposed foreign emigration. In the early s, African Americans in the South continued to face the injustices of Jim Crow and an economy that afforded them little possibility to thrive.
Still, innearly 90 percent of American blacks lived in the South, four-fifths of them in rural areas. Racism and prejudice abounded. Rising rents in segregated areas, plus a resurgence of KKK activity afterworsened black and white relations across the country.
They primarily headed to the cities of the Northeast, as well as Chicago and Detroit. Census The African American populations of the Northeast and Midwest continued to grow at a rapid pace, but it was the African American migration West that distinguishes the second phase.
Midwestern cities like Chicago, St. Many found the promise of economic opportunity irresistible, though this was not the only element pulling blacks northward.
This next table shows the change in population for the twenty cities that had the largest African American populations inand the state from which that city had the most migrants.
While the population of the African- Americans grew by 40 percent in the cities such as Chicago, Cleveland and New York, it decreased dramatically throughout the South. The summer of began the greatest period of interracial strife in U. They were losing ground and sinking low in status with each passing day, and, well into the new century, the color codes would only grow to encompass more activities of daily life as quickly as they could devise them.
This data sheds light on a momentous shift in American history. While the population of the African- Americans grew by 40 percent in the cities such as Chicago, Cleveland and New York, it decreased dramatically throughout the South.
Census The African American populations of the Northeast and Midwest continued to grow at a rapid pace, but it was the African American migration West that distinguishes the second phase. Bywhen the Great Migration ended, its demographic impact was unmistakable: This is our native country.
By the late s, the federal government withdrew from the South. These were the least desirable jobs in most industries, but the ones employers felt best suited their black workers.
University of California Press, Cato From toover 1. In addition, most of the available work in the cities was industrial, and many migrating African Americans faced the prospect of learning new trades, generally at lower rates of pay than European Americans received.
Visit Website Did you know. African Americans had to fight to establish a black officer training program. This massive demographic shift dramatically altered African-American history culturally, politically, and socially, producing during the s a period of black artistic expression in literature, music, and thought known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Though the ACS initially received support from several prominent politicians, vocal objectors and an economic depression in Liberia killed the project by the s. Redlining remains an issue today. African Americans moving to the South during this period have been particularly attracted to large metropolitan areas, with Atlanta and Houston seeing particularly large gains.
These migrants worked in foundries, in meatpacking companies, as servants of the wealthy and on projects such as the expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
There was a massive need for additional labor in shipyards and aircraft plantsand, like in the First World War, a great shortage of workers.
To learn more about the Great Migration in one city, visit Chicago: With the native-born and immigrant populations usually relied upon off at war, companies looked south. The African origin of early modern humans ,–, years ago is now well documented, with archaeological data suggesting that a major migration from tropical east Africa to the Levant took place betweenandyears ago via the presently hyper-arid Saharan-Arabian desert.
The Great Migration Essay. The Great Migration is a term used in the U.S.
history to denote the period in the 20th century, from towhen African Americans, based in the South, moved on a large scale from rural communities. Great Migration: Great Migration, in U.S.
history, the widespread migration of African Americans in the 20th century from rural communities in the South to large cities in the North and West. At the turn of the 20th century, the vast majority of black Americans lived in the Southern states.
From to The Great Migration generally refers to the massive internal migration of Blacks from the South to urban centers in other parts of the country. Between andan estimated 6 million Blacks left the South.
This graphic compares the early migration (), sometimes referred to as the. Subject: The First Great Migration, Using the documents and your knowledge of history, evaluate the validity of the following statement: “African Americans who took part in the Great Migration from the rural South between and experienced better social and economic conditions.
The Great Migration Was The Movement Of Six Million African Americans Essay In having relocated to the North, many Caucasians held animosity toward African Americans because the competition for employment was at a higher stake and living space became increasingly crowded.The great african americans migration 1910 to 1920s essay